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. @ Amend, Amend At

Modify one or more items in a list, dictionary or datafile.

Amend             Amend At         values (d . i) or (d @ i) become

.[d; i; u]        @[d; i; u]       u[d . i]       u'[d @ i]
.[d; i; v; vy]    @[d; i; v; vy]   v[d . i;vy]    v'[d @ i;vy]

Where

  • d is an atom, list, or a dictionary (value); or a handle to a list, dictionary or datafile
  • i is a list of the indexes of d to be amended:
    • if empty (for .) or the general null :: (for @), or if d is a non-handle atom, the selection \(S\) is d (Amend Entire)
    • otherwise \(S\) is .[d;i] or @[d;i]
  • u is a unary
  • v is a binary, and vy is
    • in the right domain of v
    • unless \(S\) is d, conformable to \(S\) and of the same type

the items in d of the selection \(S\) are replaced

  • in the ternary, by u[\(S\)] for . and by u'[\(S\)] for @
  • in the quaternary, by v[\(S\);vy] for . and by v'[\(S\);vy] for @

and if d is a

  • value, returns a copy of it with the item/s at i modified
  • handle, modifies the item/s of its reference at i, and returns the handle

If v is Assign (:) each item in the selection is replaced by the corresponding item in vy.

u and v can be replaced with values of higher rank using projection or by enlisting their arguments and using Apply.

See also binary and ternary forms of . and @
Apply, Apply At, Index, Index At

Examples

Amend Entire

If i is

  • the empty list (for .)
  • the general null (for @)

the selection is the entire value in d.

.[d;();u]     <=>   u[d]            @[d;::;u]     <=>   u'[d]      
.[d;();v;y]   <=>   v[d;y]          @[d;::;v;y]   <=>   v'[d;y]    
q).[1 2; (); 3 4 5]
4 5
q).[1 2; (); :; 3 4 5]
3 4 5
q).[1 2; (); ,; 3 4 5]
1 2 3 4 5
q)@[1 2; ::; ,; 3 4 5]
1 2 3 4 5

q)@[1 2; ::; *; 3 4]
3 8
q)@[1 2; ::; 3 4*]
'type
  [0]  @[1 2; ::; 3 4*]
       ^

Single path

If i is a non-negative integer vector then the selection is a single item at depth count i in d.

q)(5 2.14; "abc") . 1 2              / index at depth 2
"c"
q).[(5 2.14; "abc"); 1 2; :; "x"]    / replace at depth 2
5 2.14
"abx"

Cross sections

Where the items of i are non-negative integer vectors, they define a cross section. The result can be understood as a series of single-path amends.

q)d
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)
(8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)
q)i:(2 0; 0 1 0)
q)y:(100 200 300; 400 500 600)
q)r:.[d; i; ,; y]

Compare d and r:

q)d                              q)r
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)                  (1 2 3 400 600;4 5 6 7 500)
(8 9;10;11 12)                   (8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)        (13 14 100 300;15 16 17 18 200;19 20)

The shape of y is 2 3, the same shape as the cross-section selected by d . i. The (j;k)th item of y corresponds to the path (i[0;j];i[1;k]). The first single-path Amend is equivalent to:

d: .[d; (i . 0 0; i . 1 0); ,; y . 0 0]

(since the amends are being done individually, and the assignment serves to capture the individual results as we go), or:

d: .[d; 2 0; ,; 100]

and item d . 2 0 becomes 13 14,100, or 13 14 100. The next single-path Amend is:

d: .[d; (i . 0 0; i . 1 1); ,; y . 0 1]

or

d: .[d; 2 1; ,; 200]

and item d . 2 1 becomes 15 16 17 18 200.

Continuing in this manner:

  • item d . 2 0 becomes 13 14 100 300, modifying the previously modified value 13 14 100
  • item d . 0 0 becomes 1 2 3 400
  • item d . 0 1 becomes 4 5 6 7 500
  • item d . 0 0 becomes 1 2 3 400 600, modifying the previously modified value 1 2 3 400

Replacement

d:((1 2 3; 4 5 6 7)
   (8 9; 10; 11 12)
   (13 14; 15 16 17 18; 19 20))
i:(2 0; 0 1 0)
y:(100 200 300; 400 500 600)
r:.[d; i; :; y]

Compare d and r:

q)d                           q)r
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)               600 500             / replaced twice; once
(8 9;10;11 12)                (8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)     (300;200;19 20)     / replaced twice; once; not

Note multiple replacements of some items-at-depth in d, corresponding to the multiple updates in the earlier example.

Unary value

The ternary replaces the selection with the results of applying u to them.

q)d
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)
(8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)
q)i
2 0
0 1 0
q)y
100 200 300
400 500 600
q)r:.[d; i; neg]

Compare d and r:

q)d                            q)r
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)                (1 2 3;-4 -5 -6 -7)
(8 9;10;11 12)                 (8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)      (13 14;-15 -16 -17 -18;19 20)

Note multiple applications of neg to some items-at-depth in d, corresponding to the multiple updates in the first example.

On disk

Certain vectors (types 1-19) can be updated directly on disk without the need to fully rewrite the file. (Since V3.4) Such vectors must

  • have no attribute
  • be of a mappable type
  • not be nested, enumerated, or compressed
q)`:data set til 20
q)@[`:data;3 6 8;:;100 200 300]
q)get `:data
0 1 2 100 4 5 200 7 300 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

q)`:test set `:sym?9?`1
`:test
q)type get `:test
20h
q)@[`:test;0 1;:;`sym?`a`b]
'type/attr error amending file test
  [0]  @[`:test;0 1;:;`sym?`a`b]
       ^

Errors

domain   d is a symbol atom but not a handle
index    a path in i is not a valid path of d
length   i and y are not conformable
type     an atom of i is not an integer, symbol or nil
type     replacement items of different type than selection

type/attr error amending file test

Apply, Apply At, Index, Index At
Q for Mortals §6.8.3 General Form of Function Application