# Modes of Operation

PyKX exists to supersede all previous interfaces between q and Python, as as such it has a few distinct modes of operation. These include:

Licensed mode is the standard mode of operation of PyKX, wherein it is running under a Python process with a valid q license. All PyKX features are available in this mode.

To provide arguments to q in this mode, the QARGS environment variable must be set to a string of command-line arguments. Refer to the q command-line argument documentation for information about what arguments can be provided.

In addition to the regular arguments taken by q, PyKX accepts its own startup arguments through this mechanism. The following PyKX-specific arguments can be provided:

Argument Description
--unlicensed Starts PyKX in unlicensed mode. No license check will be performed, and no warning will be emitted at startup if embedded q initialization fails.
--licensed Raise a PyKXException (as opposed to emitting a PyKXWarning) if embedded q initialization fails.

For example, if QARGS was set to --licensed -o 1, then it would ensure that PyKX starts in licensed mode, and embedded q would be provided the -o 1, which would set the UTC offset to UTC+01:00.

Unlicensed mode is a feature-limited mode of operation for PyKX, which has the benefit of not requiring a valid q license (except for the q license required to run the remote q process that PyKX will connect to in this mode).

If the --unlicensed flag is provided via the QARGS environment variable (as detailed above) then PyKX will start in unlicensed mode regardless of if a valid license is present.

This mode cannot run q embedded within it, and so it lacks the ability to run q code within the local Python process, and also every feature that depends on running q code. Despite this limitation, it provides the following features (which are all also available in licensed mode):

The IPC interface is key to unlicensed mode, as there is little reason to convert between Python and q unless one can run q code in some way. A pykx.QConnection instance has largely the same interface and capabilities as the pykx.q object, but differs in that it runs all of its q code in a q process over IPC. Through this connection object one can still access a q console, query interface, context interface, and of course it can be called to execute q code (in the q process over IPC).

Conversions from Python to q work the same as when running in licensed mode, with the exception of callable Python objects (e.g. functions), which cannot be converted to q in unlicensed mode.

Conversions from q to Python still provide the same K objects as in licensed mode, but with the following limitations:

• The repr of these objects no longer shows what the object looks like in q, but rather its address in memory, e.g. pykx.Table._from_addr(0x7f5b72ef8860).
• The str of these objects is no longer the string obtained by calling .Q.s on the object, but rather is the same as the repr.
• Pickling/unpickling of K objects is not supported in unlicensed mode. A pykx.LicenseException is raised if this is attempted.
• Indexing into pykx.Collection objects (i.e. non-atomic q objects) is not supported in unlicensed mode. A pykx.LicenseException is raised if this is attempted. All indexing in unlicensed mode should either be performed within the q server over IPC, or locally into a Python/Numpy/Pandas/PyArrow representation of the object, rather than into the pykx.K instance directly.
• An optimization for pykx.List.np (i.e. the Numpy conversion method for q lists) is not applied in unlicensed mode.
• Keyed tables cannot be converted to Numpy in unlicensed mode. A pykx.LicenseException is raised if this is attempted.
• The is_null, is_inf, has_nulls, and has_infs methods of K objects are not supported in unlicensed mode. A pykx.LicenseException is raised if they are called.
• Some types cannot be disambiguated, e.g. generic null versus projection null, splayed table versus regular table, etc. - this should not matter in almost every case, but is listed here in the interest of being comprehensive. When these odd types are encountered, they will be exposed as the next highest type in the K type hierarchy that they could be identified as.

Arguments cannot be provided to q via PyKX in this mode, as q is not running within PyKX in this mode. Arguments for q must instead be provided at the command-line when starting the q process that will be connected to.