# Using q functions in a Pythonic way

For many users of PyKX the q programming language is not their language of choice when developing analytics and applications. However, when dealing with large volumes of kdb+ data or operations where vector analytic performance is of paramount importance they may desire or need to make use of q.

Functionality within the PyKX library makes the access and use of this functionality easier, this is known as the Context Interface

## The Context Interface

The Context Interface provided with PyKX provides an easy to use way of accessing q contexts (also known as namespaces when at the top level.) For more information about contexts/namespaces in q please refer to Chapter 12 of Q for Mortals.

This provides users who are unfamiliar with kdb+/q analytic development to gain from the expertise of domain experts in this area through the consumption of common libraries and utilities.

Both the embedded q instance at pykx.q, and pykx.QConnection instances, have attributes for q namespaces, which are exposed in Python as pykx.QContext objects. These context objects have attributes for their members, which can either be sub-contexts or K objects. For example:

• pykx.q.Q is a KdbContext instance for the builtin .Q context/namespace
• pykx.q.ctxA.ctxB is a KdbContext instance for the .ctxA.ctxB context
• pykx.q.ctxA.ctxB.kObject is a pykx.K instance for the .ctxA.ctxB.kObject K object

Just as in q, the .q context is accessible at the top-level, so for instance instead of accessing pykx.q.q.md5, you can access it as pykx.q.md5. Some q builtins cannot be accessed like this such as or and not as these result in Python syntax errors. Such functions can instead be accessed either with getattr, or by evaluating them as q code (e.g. pykx.q('not')).

Accessing attributes of pykx.q (or a pykx.QConnection instance) which do not correspond to a context that has been loaded in memory in q will result in it trying to find a script with a matching name. This process is detailed in the flowchart below:

graph LR
A([pykx.q.ctxA<br>is accessed.]);
B{Is .ctxA <br>defined in<br>memory in q?};
C{Is .ctxA <br>defined in<br>memory in q?};
D["Search for a<br>matching script<br>(details below)."];
E{Has a<br>matching script<br>been found?};
F([AttributeError<br>is raised.]);
G([QContext<br>is returned.]);
H["Switch to the<br>context .ctxA<br>(system &quot;d .ctxA&quot;),
<br>execute the script,<br>then switch back."];

A --> B;
B --No--> D;
B --Yes--> G;
C --No--> F;
C --Yes--> G;
E --No--> F;
E --Yes--> H;
D --> E;
H --> C;

The fact that the context might not be defined even after the context interface changes the context and executes the script might be confusing. This can happen because the script can switch into other contexts, which overrides the context switch done by the context interface. Additionally the script might use fully qualified names for its definitions, which can bypass the effect of switching contexts.

Note that context switches persists across pykx.q calls (but not pykx.QConnection(...) calls). One should take care when switching contexts, as unexpectedly being in an different context can result in undesirable behaviour. QContext objects are Python context managers, which means they can be used with the with statement like so:

# q code here executes in the global context
with q.myctx:
# q code here executes in the .myctx context
pass
# q code here executes in the global context

If you would like to switch into a q context using a string for the context name, use getattr like so:

# q code here executes in the global context
with getattr(q, 'myctx'):
# q code here executes in the .myctx context
pass
# q code here executes in the global context

The following provides a number of examples of the context interface being used:

• Access a variety of functions for use from the .q, .Q and .j namespaces

>>> import pykx as kx
>>> kx.q.max
pykx.UnaryPrimitive(pykx.q('max'))
>>> kx.q.max([1, 2, 3])
>>>
>>> kx.q.mavg
pykx.Lambda(pykx.q('k){msum[x;0.0^y]%mcount[x;y]}'))
>>> kx.q.mavg(3, kx.q('til 10'))
pykx.FloatVector(pykx.q('0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8'))
>>>
>>> kx.q.Q
<pykx.ctx.QContext of .Q with [ajf0, k, K, host, addr, gc, ts, gz, w, res, addmonths, Xf, Cf, f, fmt, ff, fl, opt, def, qt, v, qp, V, ft, ord, nv, tx, tt, fk, t, ty, nct, fu, fc, A, a, n, nA, an, b6, Aa, id, j10, x10, j12, x12, btoa, sha1, prf0, l, sw, tab, t0, s1, s2, S, s, hap, hmb, hg, hp, a1, a0, IN, qa, qb, vt, bv, pm, pt, MAP, dd, d0, p1, p2, p, view, L, cn, pcnt, dt, ind, fp, foo, a2, qd, xy, x1, x0, x2, ua, q0, qe, ps, enxs, enx, en, ens, par, dpts, dpt, dpfts, dpft, hdpf, fsn, fs, fpn, fps, dsftg, M, chk, Ll, Lp, Lx, Lu, Ls, fqk, fql, btx, bt, sbt, trp, dr, dw, pl0, pl, jl8, srr, prr, lu, DL, dbg, err, BP, bp, bs, bu, bd, bc]>
>>> kx.q.Q.ty(np.array([1, 2, 3]))
pykx.CharAtom(pykx.q('"j"'))
>>>
>>> kx.q.j
<pykx.ctx.QContext of .j with [e, q, s, es, J, k, jd, j]>
>>> kx.q.j.j({'test': 2, 'dict' : [1, 2, 3]})
pykx.CharVector(pykx.q('"{\"test\":2,\"dict\":[1,2,3]}"'))
• Generate a script containing a context and make use of its functionality

• Generate the script saving it to QHOME
>>> demo_extension_source = '''
... \d .demo_extension
... N:100
... test_data:([]N?abc;N?1f;N?10;N?0b)
... test_function:{[data]
...   analytic_keys :max_x1avg_x2med_x3;
...   analytic_calcs:(
...     (max;x1);
...     (avg;x2);
...     (med;x3));
...   ?[data;
...     ();
...     k!k:enlist x;
...     analytic_keys!analytic_calcs
...     ]
...   }
... '''
>>>
>>> demo_extension_filename = kx.QHOME/'demo_extension.q'
>>> with open(demo_extension_filename, 'w') as f:
...     f.write(demo_extension_source)
• Access the defined context using the variables and functions defined
>>> kx.q.demo_extension
<pykx.ctx.QContext of .demo_extension with [N, test_data, test_function]>
>>> kx.q.demo_extension.test_data
pykx.Table(pykx.q('
x x1         x2 x3
------------------
c 0.2086614  2  0
a 0.9907116  1  1
a 0.5794801  8  1
b 0.9029713  8  0
a 0.2011578  1  0
..
'))
>>> kx.q.demo_extension.test_function
pykx.SymbolicFunction(pykx.q('.demo_extension.test_function'))
>>> kx.q.demo_extension.test_function(kx.q.demo_extension.test_data)
pykx.KeyedTable(pykx.q('
x| max_x1    avg_x2   med_x3
-| -------------------------
a| 0.9907116 4.74359  1
b| 0.9550901 4.580645 1
c| 0.9830794 4.433333 0
'))

## Script Search Logic

When the context interface cannot find a namespace (i.e. a top-level context) that is being accessed it attempts to find a q/k script that has a matching name. This process is done via a depth first search of a tree where each node corresponds to part of the path, and each leaf corresponds to a possible file. Only the first file found that exists is executed. If none of the files exist then an AttributeError is raised.

The layers of the tree are as follows:

• Each of the paths in pykx.q.paths/pykx.ipc.Connection(...).paths (which defaults to pykx.ctx.default_paths)
• . prefix or not
• The name of the attribute accessed (i.e. pykx.q.script -> script)
• .q or .k
• No trailing _ or a trailing _ (n.b. why a q/k script path would end with an underscore)

So for example if pykx.q.script was accessed, the context .script was not defined in memory in q, and paths was set to ['.', pykx.QHOME] (where pykx.QHOME == pathlib.Path('/opt/kdb')), then the following paths would be checked in order until one is found to exist, or they have all been checked:

1. ./.script.q
2. ./.script.q_
3. ./.script.k
4. ./.script.k_
5. ./script.q
6. ./script.q_
7. ./script.k
8. ./script.k_
9. /opt/kdb/.script.q
10. /opt/kdb/.script.q_
11. /opt/kdb/.script.k
12. /opt/kdb/.script.k_
13. /opt/kdb/script.q
14. /opt/kdb/script.q_
15. /opt/kdb/script.k
16. /opt/kdb/script.k_
Failure to find a script

Failure to find a script associated with your defined extension will result in an error being raised, the following error message provides a truncated example of this when attempting to retrieve a context test_extension:

>>> kx.q.test_extension
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/__init__.py", line 118, in __getattr__
self.__getattribute__('_register')(name=key)
File "/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/__init__.py", line 189, in _register
path = _first_resolved_path([''.join(x) for x in it.product(
File "/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/__init__.py", line 47, in _first_resolved_path
raise FileNotFoundError(f'Could not find any of the following files:\n{unfound_paths}')
FileNotFoundError: Could not find any of the following files:
.test_extension.q
.test_extension.q_
/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/lib/test_extension.k
/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/lib/test_extension.k_

The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
File "/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/__init__.py", line 122, in __getattr__
raise attribute_error from inner_error
File "/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/__init__.py", line 115, in __getattr__
return ctx.__getattr__(key)
File "/usr/local/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pykx/ctx.py", line 267, in __getattr__
raise AttributeError(
AttributeError: 'pykx.ctx.QContext' object has no attribute 'test_extension'

## Best Practices

To take full advantage of the automatic script loading one should ensure that every q/k script defines at most one public context. Ideally every q/k script should define exactly one context, and the name of the context should be equivalent to the name of the file without the file extension. For instance, script.q should place its definitions within the .script namespace. This ensures that when the context interface executes a script to load a context, it doesn't load in more contexts than intended. Furthermore the context name matching the file name ensures that when that file is executed because its name matches the desired context, that context will actually be defined.

When these best practices cannot be followed it may be impossible to use the automatic loading of scripts via the context interface. In that case we can resort to manually loading scripts either by executing the q code system "l <path to script>", or by calling pykx.q._register with the path to the script.

When switching contexts within a script, one should always save the context they were in prior to their context switch, and then switch back into it afterwards, rather than explicitly switching into the global context.

## Execution Contexts for Functions

Functions returned by the context interface are provided as pykx.SymbolicFunction instances.

These objects are symbol atoms whose symbol is a named function (with a fully-qualified name). They can be called like regular pykx.Function objects, but unlike regular pykx.Function objects, they will execute in the pykx.Q instance (also known as its "execution context") in which it was defined.

The following shows an example of the retrieval of a function from a context vs defining the function itself:

• Function retrieved via a context

>>> kx.q.extension.func
pykx.SymbolicFunction(pykx.q('.extension.func'))
>>> kx.q.extension.func(2)
pykx.LongAtom(pykx.q('3'))
• Function defined locally and retrieved

>>> qfunc = kx.q('{x+1}')
>>> qfunc
pykx.Lambda(pykx.q('{x+1}'))
>>> qfunc(2)
pykx.LongAtom(pykx.q('3'))