.
Apply, Index, Trap
@
Apply At, Index At, Trap At¶
 Apply a function to a list of arguments
 Get items at depth in a list
 Trap errors
rank  syntax  function semantics  list semantics 

2  v . vx .[v;vx] 
Apply Apply v to list vx of arguments 
Index Get item/s vx at depth from v 
2  u @ ux @[u;ux] 
Apply At Apply unary u to argument ux 
Index At Get items ux from u 
3  .[g;gx;e] 
Trap Try g . gx ; catch with e 

3  @[f;fx;e] 
Trap At Try f@fx ; catch with e 
Where
e
is an expression, typically a functionf
is a unary function andfx
in its domaing
is a function of rank n andgx
an atom or list of count n with items in the domains ofg
v
is a value of rank n (or a handle to one) andvx
a list of count n with items in the domains ofv
u
is a unary value (or a handle to one) andux
in its domain
Apply, Index¶
v . vx
evaluates value v
on the n arguments listed in vx
.
q)+ . 2 3 / +[2;3] Apply
5
q)add
0 1 2 3
1 2 3 4
2 3 4 5
3 4 5 6
q)add . 2 3 / add[2;3] Index
5
q).[+;2 3]
5
q).[add;2 3]
5
If v
has rank n, then vx
has n items and v
is evaluated as:
v[vx[0]; vx[1]; …; vx[1+count vx]]
If v
has rank 2 then vx
has 2 items and v
is applied to the first argument vx[0]
and the second argument vx[1]
.
v[vx[0];vx[1]]
If v
has 1 argument then vx
has 1 item and v
is applied to the argument vx[0]
.
v[vx[0]]
Nullaries¶
Nullaries (functions of rank 0) are handled differently. The pattern above suggests that the empty list ()
would be the argument list to nullary v
, but v . ()
is a case of Index, where empty vx
always selects v
.
Apply for nullary v
is denoted by v . enlist[::]
, i.e. the right argument is the enlisted null.
For example:
q)a: 2 3
q)b: 10 20
q){a + b} . enlist[::]
12 23
Index¶
d . i
returns an item from list or dictionary d
as specified by successive items in list i
.
The result is found in d
at depth count i
as follows.
The list i
is a list of successive indexes into d
. i[0]
must be in the domain of d@
. It selects an item of d
, which is then indexed by i[1]
, and so on.
( (d@i[0]) @ i[1] ) @ i[2]
…
q)d
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)
(8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)
q)d . enlist 1 / select item 1, i.e. d@1
8 9
10
11 12
q)d . 1 2 / select item 2 of item 1
11 12
q)d . 1 2 0 / select item 0 of item 2 of item 1
11
Index At¶
The selections at each level are individual applications of Index At: first, item d@i[0]
is selected, then (d@i[0])@i[1]
, then ((d@i[0])@ i[1])@ i[2]
, and so on.
These expressions can be rewritten using Over applied to Index At; the first is d@/i[0]
, the second is d@/i[0 1]
, and the third is d@/i[0 1 2]
.
In general, for a vector i
of any count, d . i
is identical to d@/i
.
q)((d @ 1) @ 2) @ 0 / selection in terms of a series of @s
11
q)d @/ 1 2 0 / selection in terms of @Over
11
Cross sections¶
Index is crosssectional when the items of i
are lists. That is, itemsatdepth in d
are indexed for paths made up of all combinations of atoms of i[0]
and atoms of i[1]
and atoms of i[2]
, and so on to the last item of i
.
The simplest case of crosssectional index occurs when the items of i
are vectors. For example, d .(2 0;0 1)
selects items 0 and 1 from both items 2 and 0:
q)d . (2 0; 0 1)
13 14 15 16 17 18
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
q)count each d . (2 0; 0 1)
2 2
Note that items appear in the result in the same order as the indexes appear in i
.
The first item of i
selects two items of d
, as in d@i[0]
. The second item of i
selects two items from each of the two items just selected, as in (d@i[0])@'i[1]
. Had there been a third vector item in i
, say of count 5, then that item would select five items from each of the four itemsatdepth 1 just selected, as in ((d@i[0])@'i[1])@''i[2]
, and so on.
When the items of i
are vectors the result is rectangular to at least depth count i
, depending on the regularity of d
, and the k
th item of its shape vector is (count i)[k]
for every k
less than count i
. That is, the first count i
items of the shape of the result are count each i
.
More general crosssectional indexing occurs when the items of i
are rectangular lists, not just vectors, but the situation is much like the simpler case of vector items.
Nulls in i
¶
Nulls in i
mean “select all”: if i[0]
is null, then continue on with d
and the rest of i
, i.e. 1_i
; if i[1]
is null, then for every selection made through i[0]
, continue on with that selection and the rest of i
, i.e. 2_i
; and so on. For example, d .(::;0)
means that the 0th item of every item of d
is selected.
q)d
(1 2 3;4 5 6 7)
(8 9;10;11 12)
(13 14;15 16 17 18;19 20)
q)d . (::;0)
1 2 3
8 9
13 14
Another example, this time with i[1]
equal to null:
q)d . (0 2;::;1 0)
(2 1;5 4)
(14 13;16 15;20 19)
Note that d .(::;0)
is the same as d .(0 1 2;0)
, but in the last example, there is no value that can be substituted for null in (0 2;;1 0)
to get the same result, because when item 0 of d
is selected, null acts like 0 1
, but when item 2 of d
is selected, it acts like 0 1 2
.
The general case of a nonnegative integer list i
¶
In the general case, when the items of i
are nonnegative integer atoms or lists, or null, the structure of the result can be thought of as cascading structures of the items of i
. That is, with nulls aside, the result is structurally like i[0]
, except that wherever there is an atom in i[0]
, the result is structurally like i[1]
, except that wherever there is an atom in i[1]
, the result is structurally like i[2]
, and so on.
The general case of Index can be defined recursively in terms of Index At by partitioning the list i
into its first item and the rest:
Index:{[d;F;R]
$[ F~::; Index[d; first R; 1 _ R];
0 =count R; d @ F;
0>type F; Index[d @ F; first R; 1 _ R]
Index[d;; R]'F ]}
That is, d . i
is Index[d;first i;1_i]
.
To work through the definition, start with F
as the first item of i
and R
as the remainder. At each step in the recursion:
 if
F
is null then select all ofd
and continue on, with the first item of the remainderR
as the newF
and the remainder ofR
as the new remainder;  otherwise, if the remainder is the empty vector apply Index At (the right argument
F
is now the last item ofi
), and we are done;  otherwise, if
F
is an atom, apply Index At to select that item ofd
and continue on in the same way as whenF
is null;  otherwise, apply Index with fixed arguments
d
andR
, but independently to the items of the listF
.
Dictionaries and symbolic indexing¶
If i
is a symbol atom then d
must be a dictionary or handle of a directory on the Ktree, and d . i
selects the value of the entry named in i
. For example, if:
dir:`a`b!(2 3 4;"abcdefg")
then `dir . enlist`b
is "abcdefg"
and `dir . (`b;1 3 5)
is "bdf"
.
If i
is a list whose items are nonnegative integer atoms and symbol atoms, then just like the nonnegative integer vector case, d . i
is a single item at depth count i
in d
. The difference is that wherever a symbol appears in i
, say as the kth item, the selection up to the kth item must produce a dictionary or a handle of a directory. Selection by the kth item is the value of an entry in that dictionary or directory, and further selections go on from there. For example:
q)(1;`a`b!(2 3 4;10 20 30 40)) . (1; `b; 2)
30
As we have seen above for the general case, every atom in the k
th item of i
must be a valid index of all items at depth k
selected by d . k # i
. Moreover, symbols can only select from dictionaries and directories, and integers cannot.
Consequently, if the k
th item of i
contains a symbol atom, then all items selected by d . k # i
must be dictionaries or handles of directories, and therefore all atoms in the k
th item of i
must be symbols.
It follows that each item of i
must be made up entirely of nonnegative integer atoms, or entirely of symbol atoms, and if the k
th item of i
is made up of symbols, then all items at depth k
in d
selected by the first k
items of i
must be dictionaries.
Note that if d
is either a dictionary or handle to a directory then d . enlist key d
is a list of values of all the entries.
Step dictionaries¶
Where d
is a dictionary, d@i
or d[i]
or d i
returns for each item of i
that is outside the domain of d
a null of the same type as the keys.
q)d:`cat`cow`dog`sheep!`chat`vache`chien`mouton
q)d
cat  chat
cow  vache
dog  chien
sheep mouton
q)d `sheep`snake`cat`ant
`mouton``chat`
q)
q)e:(10*til 10)!til 10
q)e
0  0
10 1
20 2
30 3
40 4
50 5
60 6
70 7
80 8
90 9
q)e 80 35 20 10
8 0N 2 0N
A step dictionary has the sorted attribute set.
Its keys are a sorted vector.
Where s
is a step dictionary, and i[k]
are the items of i
that are outside the domain of d
, the value/s for d@i@k
are the values for the highest keys that are lower than i k
.
q)d:`cat`cow`dog`sheep!`chat`vache`chien`mouton
q)ds:`s#d
q)ds~d
1b
q)ds `sheep`snake`cat`ant
`mouton`mouton`chat`
q)
q)es:`s#e
q)es~e
1b
q)es 80 35 20 10
8 3 2 0N
Set Attribute
qrious kdb+: Step Dictionaries
Apply At, Index At¶
@
is syntactic sugar for the case where u
is a unary and ux
a 1item list.
u@ux
is always equivalent to u . enlist ux
.
Brackets are syntactic sugar
The brackets of an argument list are also syntactic sugar. Nothing can be expressed with brackets that cannot also be expressed using .
.
You can use the derived function @\:
to apply a list of unary values to the same argument.
q){`o`h`l`c!(first;max;min;last)@\:x}1 2 3 4 22 / open, high, low, close
o 1
h 22
l 1
c 22
Trap¶
In the ternary, if evaluation of the function fails, the expression is evaluated. (Compare try/catch in some other languages.)
q).[+;"ab";`ouch]
`ouch
If the expression is a function, it is evaluated on the text of the signalled error.
q).[+;"ab";{"Wrong ",x}]
"Wrong type"
For a successful evaluation, the ternary returns the same result as the binary.
q).[+;2 3;{"Wrong ",x}]
5
Trap At¶
@[f;fx;e]
is equivalent to .[f;enlist fx;e]
.
Use Trap At as a simpler form of Trap, for unary values.
Limit of the trap¶
Trap catches only errors signalled in the applications of f
or g
. Errors in the evaluation of fx
or gg
themselves are not caught.
q)@[2+;"42";`err]
`err
q)@[2+;"42"+3;`err]
'type
[0] @[2+;"42"+3;`err]
^
When e
is not a function¶
If e
is a function it will be evaluated only if f
or g
fails. It will however be parsed before any of the other expressions are evaluated.
q)@[2+;"42";{)}]
')
[0] @[2+;"42";{)}]
^
If e
is any other kind of expression it will always be evaluated – and first, in the usual righttoleft sequence. In this respect Trap and Trap At are unlike try/catch in other languages.
q)@[string;42;a:100] / expression not a function
"42"
q)a // but a was assigned anyway
100
q)@[string;42;{b::99}] / expression is a function
"42"
q)b // not evaluated
'b
[0] b
^
For most purposes, you will want e
to be a function.
Errors signalled¶
error  cause 

domain  the symbol d is not a handle 
index  an atom in vx or ux is not an index to an itematdepth in d 
rank  the count of vx is greater than the rank of v 
type  v or u is a symbol atom, but not a handle to an value 
type  an atom of vx or ux is not an integer, symbol or null 