# 2. Language¶

## 2.1 Overview¶

Q is the programming system for working with kdb+. This corresponds to SQL for traditional databases, but unlike SQL, q is a powerful programming language in its own right.

Q is an interpreted language. Q expressions can be entered and executed in the q console, or loaded from a q script, which is a text file with extension .q.

You need at least some familiarity with q to use kdb+. Try following the examples here in the q console interface. Also, ensure that you have installed the example files.

The following pages will also be useful:

You load q by changing to the main q directory, then running the q executable. Note that you should not just click the q executable from the file explorer – this will load q but start in the wrong directory.

It is best to create a start-up batch file or script to do this, and there are examples in the q/start directory, see q.bat (Windows), q.sh (Linux) and q.app (macOS).

For example, the Windows q.bat is:

c:
cd \q
w32\q.exe %*


In Linux/macOS, it is best to call the q executable under rlwrap to support line recall and edit. The Linux q.sh script is:

#!/bin/bash
cd ~/q
rlwrap l32/q "$@"  ## 2.3 First steps¶ Once q is loaded, you can enter expressions for execution: q)2 + 3 5 q)2 + 3 4 7 5 6 9  You can confirm that you are in the main q directory by calling a directory list command, e.g. • in Windows: q)\dir *.q ... "sp.q" "trade.q" ...  • in Linux/macOS: q q)\ls *.q ... "sp.q" "trade.q" ... Command-line parameters e.g. bash$ q profile.q -p 5001

• loads script profile.q at startup. This can in turn load other scripts.
• sets listening port to 5001

At any prompt, enter \\ to exit q.

## 2.4 Console modes¶

The usual prompt is q). Sometimes a different prompt is given; you need to understand why this is, and how to return to the standard prompt.

1. If a function is suspended, then the prompt has two or more ). In this case, enter a single \ to remove one level of suspension, and repeat until the prompt becomes q). For example: q q)f:{2+x} / define function f q)f sym / function call fails with symbol argument {2+x} / and is left suspended 'type + 2 sym q))\ / prompt becomes q)). Enter \ to return to usual prompt q)
2. If there is no suspension, then a single \ will toggle between q and k modes: q q)count each (1 2;"abc") / q expression for length of each list item 2 3 q)\ / toggle to k mode #:'(1 2;"abc") / equivalent k expression 2 3 \ / toggle back to q mode q)
3. If you change namespace, then the prompt includes the namespace.
q q)\d .h / change to h namespace q.h)\d . / change back to root namespace q) Reference/System commands \d

## 2.5 Error messages¶

Error messages are terse. The format is a single quote, followed by error text:

q)1 2 + 10 20 30             / cannot add 2 numbers to 3 numbers
'length
q)2 + "hello"                / cannot add number to character
'type


## 2.6 Introductory examples¶

To gain experience with the language, enter the following examples and explain the results. Also experiment with similar expressions. (The / below marks a comment, which should not be entered.)

q)x:2 5 4 7 5
q)x
2 5 4 7 5
q)count x
5
q)8 # x
2 5 4 7 5 2 5 4
q)2 3 # x
2 5 4
7 5 2
q)sum x
23
q)sums x
2 7 11 18 23
q)distinct x
2 5 4 7
q)reverse x
5 7 4 5 2
q)x within 4 10
01111b
q)x where x within 4 10
5 4 7 5
q)y:(x;"abc")             / list of lists
q)y
2 5 4 7 5
"abc"
q)count y
2
q)count each y
5 3


The following is a function definition, where x represents the argument:

q)f:{2 + 3 * x}
q)f 5
17
q)f til 5
2 5 8 11 14


Q makes essential use of a symbol datatype:

q)a:toronto        / symbol
q)b:"toronto"       / character string
q)count a
1
q)count b
7
q)a="o"
type
q)b="o"
0101001b
q)a~b               / a is not the same as b
0b
q)a~$b / $b converts b to symbol
1b


## 2.7 Data structures¶

Q basic data structures are atoms (singletons) and lists. Other data structures like dictionaries and tables are built from lists. For example, a simple table is just a list of column names associated with a list of corresponding column values, each of which is a list.

q)item:nut                 / atom (singleton)

q)items:nutboltcamcog   / list
q)sales: 6 8 0 3            / list
q)prices: 10 20 15 20       / list

q)(items;sales;prices)      / list of lists
nut bolt cam cog
6   8    0   3
10  20   15  20

q)dict:itemssalesprices!(items;sales;prices) / dictionary
q)dict
items | nut bolt cam cog
sales | 6   8    0   3
prices| 10  20   15  20

q)tab:([]items;sales;prices)                   / table
q)tab
items sales prices
------------------
nut   6     10
bolt  8     20
cam   0     15
cog   3     20


Note that a table is a flip (transpose) of a dictionary:

q)flip dict
items sales prices
------------------
nut   6     10
bolt  8     20
cam   0     15
cog   3     20


The table created above is an ordinary variable in the q workspace, and could be written to disk. In general, you create tables in memory and then write to disk.

Since it is a table, you can use SQL-like query expressions on it:

q)select from tab where prices < 20
items sales prices
------------------
nut   6     10
cam   0     15


Since it is an ordinary variable, you can also index it and do other typical data manipulations:

q)tab 1 3                 / index rows 1 and 3
items sales prices
------------------
bolt  8     20
cog   3     20

q)tab sales              / index column sales
6 8 0 3

q)tab, tab                / join two copies
items sales prices
------------------
nut   6     10
bolt  8     20
cam   0     15
cog   3     20
nut   6     10
bolt  8     20
cam   0     15
cog   3     20


A keyed table has one or more columns as keys:

q)1!tab                   / keyed table
items| sales prices
-----| ------------
nut  | 6     10
bolt | 8     20
cam  | 0     15
cog  | 3     20


Functions take arguments on their right. Operators take arguments on left and right, as in * (multiplication). Adverbs take function or verb arguments on their left and return derived functions or verbs. In practice, the term function is used for both functions and operators, except where the distinction is relevant.

q)sales * prices                 / operator: *
60 160 0 60
q)sum sales * prices             / function: sum
280
q)sumamt:{sum x*y}               / define function: sumamt
q)sumamt[sales;prices]
280

q)(sum sales*prices) % sum sales / calculate weighted average
16.47059
q)sales wavg prices              / built-in operator: wavg
16.47059

q)sales , prices                 / operator: , join lists
6 8 0 3 10 20 15 20
q)sales ,' prices                / adverb: ' join lists in pairs
6 10
8 20
0 15
3 20


Functions can apply to dictionaries and tables:

q)-2 # tab
items sales prices
------------------
cam   0     15
cog   3     20


Functions can be used within queries:

q)select items,sales,prices,amount:sales*prices from tab
items sales prices amount
-------------------------
nut   6     10     60
bolt  8     20     160
cam   0     15     0
cog   3     20     60


## 2.9 Scripts¶

A q script is a plain text file with extension .q, which contains q expressions that are executed when loaded.

For example, load the script sp.q and display the s table that it defines:

q)\l sp.q                                / load script

q)s                                      / display table s
s | name  status city
--| -------------------
s1| smith 20     london
s2| jones 10     paris
s3| blake 30     paris
s4| clark 20     london


Within a script, a line that contains a single / starts a comment block. A line with a single \ ends the comment block, or if none, exits the script.

A script can contain multi-line definitions. Any line that is indented is assumed to be a continuation of the previous line. Blank lines, superfluous blanks, and lines that are comments (begin with /) are ignored in determining this. For example, if a script has contents:

a:1 2

/ this is a comment line

3
+ 4

b:"abc"


Then loading this script would define a and b as:

q)a
5 6 7                / i.e. 1 2 3 + 4
q)b
"abc"


## 2.10 Q queries¶

Q queries are similar to SQL, though often much simpler.

\l sp.q

q)select from p where weight=17
p | name color weight city
--| ------------------------
p2| bolt green 17 paris
p3| screw blue 17 rome


SQL statements can be entered, if prefixed with s).

q)s)select * from p where color in (red,green)  / SQL query
p | name  color weight city
--| -------------------------
p1| nut   red   12     london
p2| bolt  green 17     paris
p4| screw red   14     london
p6| cog   red   19     london


The q equivalent would be:

q)select from p where color in redgreen


Similarly, compare:

q)select distinct p,s.city from sp
s)select distinct sp.p,s.city from sp,s where sp.s=s.s


and

q)select from sp where s.city=p.city
s)select sp.s,sp.p,sp.qty from s,p,sp where sp.s=s.s
and sp.p=p.p and p.city=s.city


Note that the dot notation in q automatically references the appropriate table.

Q results can have lists in the rows.

q)select qty by s from sp
s | qty
--| -----------------------
s1| 300 200 400 200 100 400
s2| 300 400
s3| ,200
s4| 100 200 300


ungroup will flatten the result.

q)ungroup select qty by s from sp
s qty
------
s1 300
s1 200
s1 400
s1 200
...


Calculations can be performed on the intermediate results.

q)select countqty:count qty,sumqty:sum qty by p from sp
p | countqty sumqty
--| ---------------
p1| 2        600
p2| 4        1000
p3| 1        400
p4| 2        500
p5| 2        500
p6| 1        100
`