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Syntax: x like y

Match text/s x to pattern in string y. Where x is

  • a symbol atom or list
  • a string or list of strings
  • a dictionary whose value is a symbol list, or list of strings

The result is a boolean list indicating which items in x match the pattern y.

In pattern y certain characters have special meaning:

  • ? matches any character
  • * matches any sequence of characters
  • [] embraces a list of alternatives, any of which matches
  • ^ at the beginning of a list of alternatives indicates characters that are not to be matched

Special characters can be matched by bracketing them.

Regular expressions


Syntax: lower x

Returns symbol or string x with any bicameral characters in the lower case.



Syntax: ltrim x

Left trim: returns string x with any leading space/s removed.

q)ltrim"   IBM   "
"IBM   "


Syntax md5 x

Returns the MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) of string x.

MD5 is a widely used, Internet standard (RFC 1321), hash function that computes a 128-bit hash, commonly used to check the integrity of files. It is not recommended for serious cryptographic protection, for which strong hashes should be used.

q)md5 "this is a not so secret message"

$ (pad)

Syntax: x $ y

Where x is a long, and y a string, returns y padded to length x.

"foo       "
"       foo"


Syntax: rtrim x

Right trim: returns string x with any trailing space/s removed.

q)rtrim"   IBM   "
"   IBM"


Syntax: x ss y

String search: returns position/s of substring y within string x.

q)"We the people of the United States" ss "the"
3 17

It also supports some of the pattern-matching capabilities of like.

q)s:"toronto ontario"
q)s ss "ont"
3 8
q)s ss "[ir]o"
2 13
q)s ss "t?r"
0 10

Regular expressions


Syntax: ssr[x;y;z]

String search (using ss) and replace: where

  • x is a string
  • y is a pattern
  • z is a string or a function

returns x with each substring matching y replaced by:

  • z if z is a string
  • z[Y] where z is a function and Y is the matched substring
q)s:"toronto ontario"
q)ssr[s;"ont";"x"]      / replace "ont" by "x"
"torxo xario"
q)ssr[s;"t?r";upper]    / replace matches by their uppercase
"TORonto onTARio"

Regular expressions


Syntax: trim x

Returns string x with any leading or trailing spaces removed.

q)trim"   IBM   "



Syntax: upper x

Returns symbol or string x with any bicameral characters in the upper case.